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Under the constitution, the king and the parliament were responsible for agreeing on the budget. The liberals violently denounced Bismarck for what they saw as his disregard for the fundamental law of the kingdom. Although he had opposed German unification earlier in his career, he had now come to believe that it was inevitable. To his mind, the conservative forces had to take the lead in the drive toward creating a unified nation in order to keep from being eclipsed.

English-German translation for "fifteen"

He also believed that the middle-class liberals wanted a unified Germany more than they wanted to break the grip of the traditional forces over society. He thus embarked on a drive to create a united Germany under Prussian leadership, and guided Prussia through three wars which ultimately achieved this goal.

The first of these wars was the Second War of Schleswig , which Prussia initiated and succeeded in gaining the assistance of Austria.

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Denmark was soundly defeated and surrendered both Schleswig and Holstein, to Prussia and Austria respectively. Prussia also annexed Schleswig and Holstein, and also effectively annexed Saxe-Lauenburg by forcing it into a personal union with Prussia which was turned into a full union in King William initially wanted to take territory from Austria itself, but Bismarck persuaded him to abandon the idea. While Bismarck wanted Austria to play no future role in German affairs, he still saw that Austria could be a valuable future ally.

With these gains in territory, the Prussian possessions in the Rhineland and Westphalia were connected to the rest of the kingdom for the first time. Counting the de facto annexation of Saxe-Lauenburg, Prussia now stretched uninterrupted across the northern two-thirds of Germany. It would remain at this size until the overthrow of the monarchy in Bismarck used this opportunity to end the budget dispute with parliament. He proposed a bill of indemnity granting him retroactive approval for governing without a legal budget. He guessed, correctly as it turned out, that this would lead to a split between his liberal adversaries.

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While some of them argued that there could be no compromise with the principle of constitutional government, most of the liberals decided to support the bill in hopes of winning more freedom in the future. The German Confederation was dissolved as part of the war. In its place, Prussia cajoled the 21 states north of the Main into forming the North German Confederation in Prussia was the dominant state in this new grouping, with four-fifths of its territory and population—more than the other members of the confederation combined. Its near-total control was cemented in a constitution written by Bismarck.

Executive power was vested in a president—a hereditary office of the rulers of Prussia. He was assisted by a chancellor responsible only to him.

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There was also a two-house parliament. The lower house, or Reichstag Diet , was elected by universal male suffrage. The upper house, or Bundesrat Federal Council was appointed by the state governments. The Bundesrat was, in practice, the stronger chamber. Prussia had 17 of 43 votes and could easily control proceedings through alliances with the other states.

For all intents and purposes, the new grouping was dominated by Bismarck. He served as his own foreign minister for virtually his entire tenure as prime minister of Prussia, and in that capacity was able to instruct the Prussian delegates to the Bundesrat.

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The southern German states except Austria were forced to accept military alliances with Prussia, and Prussia began steps to merge them with the North German Confederation. Activating the German alliances put in place after the Austro-Prussian War, the German states came together and swiftly defeated France, even managing to take Napoleon prisoner. Even before then, Bismarck was able to complete the work of unifying Germany under Prussian leadership. The patriotic fervour aroused by the war with France overwhelmed the remaining opponents of a unified nation, and on 18 January the th anniversary of the coronation of the first Prussian king, Frederick I , the German Empire was proclaimed in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles outside of Paris, while the French capital was still under siege.

King Wilhelm became the first emperor of a unified Germany. The imperial crown was a hereditary office of the House of Hohenzollern. Prussia also a large plurality of seats in the Bundesrat, with 17 votes out of 58 17 out of 61 after ; no other state had more than six votes.

As before, it could effectively control the proceedings with the support of its allies in the secondary states. As mentioned above, Bismarck served as foreign minister of Prussia for almost his entire career, and in that role instructed the Prussian deputies to the Bundesrat. The Imperial Army was essentially an enlarged Prussian army, and the embassies of the new empire were mostly old Prussian embassies. The constitution of the German Empire was essentially an amended version of the constitution of the North German Confederation.

However, the seeds for future problems lay in a gross disparity between the imperial and Prussian systems. The empire granted the vote to all men over Within 20 years, the situation was reversed; the cities and towns accounted for two-thirds of the population.

However, in both the kingdom and the empire, the constituencies were never redrawn to reflect the growing population and influence of the cities and towns.

This meant that rural areas were grossly overrepresented from the s onward. Bismarck realised that the rest of Europe was skeptical of his powerful new Reich, and turned his attention to preserving peace with such acts as the Congress of Berlin. The new German Empire improved its already-strong relations with Britain. The new emperor, a decided Anglophile, planned to transform Prussia and the empire into a more liberal and democratic monarchy based on the British model.


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However, Frederick was already ill with inoperable throat cancer, and died after only 99 days on the throne. He was succeeded by his year-old son, Wilhem II. The new Kaiser Wiliam rapidly soured relations with the British and Russian royal families despite being closely related to them , becoming their rival and ultimately their enemy.

Before and during World War I , Prussia supplied significant numbers of soldiers and sailors in the German military, and Prussian Junkers dominated the higher ranks. In addition, portions of the Eastern Front were fought on Prussian soil. Prussia — along with Germany as a whole — experienced increasing troubles with revolutionaries during the war. The Great War ended by armistice on 11 November Uprisings in Berlin and other centres began the civil conflict of the German Revolution of —19 German: Novemberrevolution. Wilhelm knew that he had lost his imperial crown for good, but still hoped to retain his Prussian crown.

However, this was impossible under the imperial constitution, which stipulated that the imperial crown was tied to the Prussian crown. In any event, he had lost support of the military who might have fought for him. With armed revolts, mass strikes, and street fighting in Berlin, the Prussian state government declared a state of siege and appealed for imperial military aid. By the end of the fighting on 16 March, they had killed approximately 1, people, many of them unarmed and uninvolved.

The revolutionary period lasted from November until the establishment in August of a republic that later became known as the Weimar Republic. Prussia was incorporated as a state in the Weimar Republic. The joint authority, feudal and bureaucratic, on which Prussian absolute monarchy was based, saw its interests laid in suppression of the drive for personal freedom and democratic rights.

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It therefore had to recourse on police methods. The lower house, or Landtag was elected by all taxpayers, who were divided into three classes according to the amount of taxes paid. The upper house, which was later renamed the Prussian House of Lords, was appointed by the king. He retained full executive authority and ministers were responsible only to him. Prussian Secret Police, formed in response to the Revolutions of in the German states, aided the conservative government.

The constitution of was enacted and set into effect on December 5, , by Frederick William IV. This was set out in response to the revolutions of The second constitution was enacted on January 31, , and was continually amended in the following years. The Constitution of occurred under the rule of Frederick William IV who took power from his father after his death in the year After taking power, William set an appointment of committees to confer on points of various questions.

With this the king believed that he could give a sense of unity without revolution. The government was then cautiously brought together, all members of the eight provincial assemblies, and split into two houses, a house of lords and a second house that enveloped the three estates of the knights, the burgesses and the peasants. Although they had no real power and the king did not consult them or allow them to veto or argue the legislatures that were being made, it was a step towards a constitutional state.


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When the king refused to add the United Diets into an actual representative institution, the people began to rebel. On March 18 the king made the decision to agree to some concessions. However, there were multiple stand-offs with soldiers as he had not been able to stop them from attacking even peaceful crowds.